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7 April 2016

Guideline Development

The guideline development task force consisted of endocrinologists, paediatric endocrinologist, family medicine specialist, public health physician, general physicians and dietitians.

The previous edition of the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) on Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) 2009 was used as the basis for the development of this present guideline.

Literature search was carried out at the following electronic databases: PUBMED, Medline, Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Journal full text via OVID search engine. In addition, the reference lists of all relevant articles retrieved were searched to identify further studies. Reference was also made to other guidelines on the management of T2DM including American Diabetes Association (ADA) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, 2015; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists’ Comprehensive Diabetes Management Algorithm 2013; International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Global Guideline for Type 2 Diabetes, 2012; Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Patient-Centered Approach Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD); Diabetes in Adults Quality Standard, National Institute For Health and Care Excellence, 2011; Malaysian CPG on Management of Obesity 2004; Canadian Diabetes Association, Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada 2013; General Practice Management of Type 2 Diabetes, The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners and Diabetes Australia, 2014; Medical Nutrition Therapy Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes. Malaysian Dietitians’ Association, 2013; Trafford NHS Healthcare Trust: The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults, 2012; Joint British Diabetes Societies Inpatient Care Group: The management of hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state in adults with diabetes, 2012.

This guideline is based largely on the findings of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the literature, taking into consideration local practices.

The clinical questions were divided into major subgroups and members of the task force were assigned individual topics within these subgroups. The task force met a total of twelve times throughout the development of the guideline. All literature retrieved were critically appraised, presented and discussed during group meetings. All statements and recommendations formulated were agreed by the task force members. Where the evidence was insufficient, the recommendations were derived by consensus of the task force members.

The articles were graded using the criteria used by the United States/Canadian Preventive Services Task Force, while the grading of recommendation in this guideline was modified from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN).

The draft guideline was posted on the Malaysian Endocrine and Metabolic Society (MEMS) and Ministry of Health Malaysia websites for comment and feedback. This guideline had also been presented to the Technical Advisory Committee for Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Health Technology Assessment and Clinical Practice Guidelines Council, Ministry of Health Malaysia for review and approval.

Please note!

Based on the National Library of Medicine Guideline which is the basis for the format of PubMed & Medline citations the CPG should be cited as follows:

Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Kuala Lumpur: Joint Publication of the Ministry of Health Malaysia, Academy of Medicine Malaysia, Malaysian Endocrine & Metabolic Society and Diabetes Malaysia; 140 p. 5th Edition, December 2015. 

ISBN 978-967-0769-34-9

Training Manual


Please note that the Training Manual for CPG T2DM 2015 is a very large file and is therefore not available in the website, however it can be downloaded from here.

Please download the full Clinical Practice Guidelines and Quick Reference Guide below...


  arrowCPG T2DM 2015 Special AFES Congress Edition.pdf (English - pdf - 12359 Kb)

  arrowQRG2016.pdf (English - pdf - 527 Kb)



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